(12) In certain NENA languages the fresh preterite from Classification II verbs features a vocalism (m)CoCiC- otherwise (m)CuCiC- which has no forerunner in the earlier languages. Noldeke (1868, 213) advised that the modern mode are regarding the fresh Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he took they out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Models which have o or u try missing exterior NENA and have in lots of of NENA languages: Hertevin, Sanandaj Christian, and you may Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) The entire establish was designated by a beneficial prefix in all NENA except Hertevin and in Mandaic as well as in Turoyo. The latest prefix takes certainly one of three models: (a) k- to the every verbs (advanced to help you c- when you look at the Urmi, longer in order to ko- in advance of consonants when you look at the Turoyo, and in Zakho as grams- prior to a voiced phoneme); (b) k- but only towards a limited group of verbs (with voicing absorption and frequently most other transform also); otherwise (c) i- toward most of the verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, private telecommunications); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we perform say’, but doqIx-wa-ce ‘we do to see it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he takes, have a tendency to eat’, however, sate ‘he products, have a tendency to, may drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin we-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu we-napli baro ‘they chase her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The newest k- prefix appears to be an endurance of one’s prefix qa- out of BT, as in the new ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. age ‘stands’. In a number of eastern languages the brand new delivery out-of k- has-been limited by a tiny family of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it has got vanished and you may become changed of the a different prefix we-, and that probably originated as less kind of we[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I would go to the fresh new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla weil kIcca ‘I decided to go to promote currency in order to an effective girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The new verb ‘give’ are yehav during the BT, and you will yav in the Syriac. This has been remade in every NENA languages from incorporation of one’s following l- ‘to’. The fresh new vital, which had been hav from inside the Syriac and you will BT, is hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in all NENA whereby I have suggestions, however in the Turoyo or Mandaic.
(15) Throughout NENA, the fresh new only 1 crucial out of qyama ‘get up’ has lost its finally m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Christian qu (Panoussi, 110). This new plural, yet not, keeps the fresh new m.
(16) In all NENA, this new crucial from (i)zala ‘go’ try unpredictable: Aradhin quand omgchat (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Religious state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani au moment ou (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) Across NENA, a number of different terminology can be used as base to own reflexive pronouns like ‘myself’. He could be: ruh- inside the Hertevin plus Turoyo, nos- regarding about three easternmost Jewish languages, and you can gyan- regarding kept dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
That it qa- try itself a good contraction of qa?
(18) A different preposition definition ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ that takes the form ta, tla, otherwise tla are extensive, regardless if not common, from inside the NENA, yet not utilized in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) concerned cook’ (Rubba, personal communication), Zakho cuxa la psIxle darga story ‘no you to exposed the doorway so you can him’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 182).